Complex Documents
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Table of Contents Introduction Word 2002 Web Resources Word Books Confidentiality Supplement Word FAQ Vendors Dir. Downloads

 

 

 

 

Complex Documents in Microsoft Word

Last edited by Charles Kenyon on Thursday 02 November 2017

What You Will Learn

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
bulletGenerate a Table of Contents using Word's Built-in Styles
bulletGenerate a Table of Contents by manually marking entries
bulletCreate a Table of Contents for Multiple Documents Using RD Fields
bulletUse the Gallery in Ribbon Versions of Word to Insert a Table of Contents
bulletUpdate, delete and modify the Table of Contents
bulletUse a Style Separator to use only part of a paragraph
bulletManually mark Table of Authorities citations
bullet Generate and update a Table of Authorities
bulletCreate a Single Table of Authorities for Multiple Word Documents Using RD Fields
bulletInsert a Caption for a Table (or Figure or Picture)
bulletCreate a Table of Figures - or Illustrations - or Tables - or Equations
bulletHave only a part of a paragraph or caption appear in a Table.
bulletManually mark index entries and create an Index
bulletUse a Concordance file for AutoMark - and why you may not want to do this
bullet Index multiple documents in one index using RD fields
bulletInsert, modify, delete and convert Footnotes and Endnotes
bulletReference the same footnote or endnote multiple times
bulletUnderstand Bookmarks and how they work
bulletInsert Bookmarks
bulletCreate and update Cross-references
bulletTroubleshoot Complex Documents
bulletAvoid even thinking about trying to use the Master Documents "feature"

Additional Written (and Web) Resources
bulletWord for Law Firms by Payne Consulting Group:
bulletWord 97 for Law Firms (also at Amazon.com UK)
bulletWord 2000 for Law Firms (also at Amazon.com UK)
bulletWord X (2002) for Law Firms (also at Amazon.com UK)
bullet Track Changes, Merge and compare documents, insert comments (another chapter in this usersguide)
bullet Mail Merge Using a basic document filled with information from a datafile (another chapter in this usersguide)
bullet Complex Documents - Word 2002 (Word Format - not supplemented)
bulletMetaData in Word Documents and Confidentiality by Bob BlacksBerg
bullet Introduction to Tables of Contents - Microsoft video course - says applies to Word 2013 but concepts apply to all versions of Word
bullet Take Tables of Contents to the Next Level - Microsoft video course - says applies to Word 2013 but concepts apply to all versions of Word
bullet How Can I Include Just Part of a Paragraph in My Table of Contents by Suzanne S. Barnhill, MVP
bulletBookmarks and Fields Sampler by Joseph Freedman and Charles Kenyon
bulletAsk Fields and Bookmarks by Charles Kenyon
bulletHow to Create an Index by John McGhie
bullet TOC Tips and Tricks by Suzanne Barnhill, MVP
bullet Customizing Your Table of Contents with Switches by Suzanne S. Barnhill, MVP.
bullet Microsoft Documentation on the Table of Contents (TOC) Field
bullet Microsoft Documentation on the Index Field
bullet Microsoft Documentation on the Table of Authorities (TOA) Field
bulletWord Bookmarks by Cindy Meister
bullet How to number headings and figures in Appendices by Shauna Kelly
bulletQuickly Reorganize Long Documents Using Outline View (Microsoft)
bullet The Pitfalls of Word's Table of Contents Features by Tim Byrne of Microsystems Engineering
bulletHow to Use Word to Create a Thesis - People writing a thesis are facing problems similar to those faced by people trying to create complex legal documents. However, they may have little experience with Word. This is a tutorial for them. You may find it useful as well. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada 
bulletHow to Control Page Numbering in Microsoft Word by Bill Coan, MVP. Using Fields for Page Numbering - Much more Control
bulletFolio by Chapter or "I want to include the chapter number with the page number in the Header – how can I do this?" by John McGhie, Word MVP
bulletGender Toolbar Add-In by Charles Kenyon (uses document properties, autotext, and fields)
bulletHow to create a menu to navigate through the non-hidden bookmarks in a document by Astrid Zeelenberg. (Note this is for documents that will be used on-line rather than ones that will be printed or converted to .pdf files.)
bulletWhy do my footnotes sometimes end up on a different page from their references in the text? by Suzanne S. Barnhill, MVP, and Dave Rado, MVP.
bulletStyleRef Field Tutorial - 2 page download
bulletIncludeText Field Tutorial - 2 documents with IncludeText links demonstrating switches, interaction of styles, and use of hidden Page field for continuous page numbering of separate documents.
bullet So You Want to Write a Book Using Microsoft Word - extensive tutorial by MVP Daiya Mitchell with overview of Styles, Templates and Sections and the interactions among these tool/features. Excellent! Not just for those who want to write books!
bullet Word Fields Part III : (Advanced) Using Events to Push the Envelope (Includes Index Hyperlinks!) by Cindy Meister, MVP
bullet Putting one page inside of another by Office for Mere Mortals
bullet Accept all tracked changes to page numbers and cross references only by Paul Edstein
bullet Creating a Table of Contents Spanning Multiple Documents by Jonathan West, MVP
bullet How to create a table of contents in Microsoft Word by Shawna Kelly, MVP
bullet Why use Microsoft Word’s built-in heading styles?  by Shawna Kelly, MVP
bullet Table of Contents Add-In by Graham Mayor, MVP
bulletUsing Styles in Letterhead and in Headers and Footers by Charles Kenyon - the StyleRef field
bulletThis chapter in Word format - Note that the chapter (as modified) contains text, actual cross-references, at least one footnote, and three Tables of Contents which cannot be accurately reflected on this web page. If you are having problems understanding the concepts described in this chapter, I suggest that you look at it in the Word version.
bullet How to set up a document with front matter numbered separately - 2007/2010/2013 by Suzanne Barnhill, MVP
bullet How to number headings and figures in Appendices by Shawna Kelly
bullet Hyperlinked Indices - Index Linker - an Add-In
bulletMousetraining's Intro Guide to Word 2007 found on their site
Mousetraining's Advanced Guide to Word 2007 found on their site
bullet Microsoft Word 2010 Bible by Herb Tyson, MVP
bullet Formatting Cross-References by Suzanne Barnhill, MVP

Boilerplate Macro Package

bullet BoilerPlate Add-In for Word by Bill Coan, MVP
See Also:

Home ] Introduction ] Word 2002 ] Web Resources ] Word Books ] Confidentiality ] Supplement ] Word FAQ ] Vendors Dir. ] Downloads ]

Click to return to table of contents page of Legal Users' Guide to Microsoft Word.Click to go to Microsoft Word new users frequently asked questions site in a new browser window.
(this guide table of contents) ----- (MS Word New Users FAQ)

Search Usersguide to Microsoft Word using Google

 

Complex Document Overview

Complex documents in a legal environment are plentiful, and generally these documents are to be filed or sent to clients on a time sensitive basis. That's why knowing the ins and outs of the tools that Word has to offer in the quick creation of Tables of Contents, Tables of Authorities, Indices, cross-references (and more) is essential in the timely completion of these documents.

CK Note: A key to drafting and editing complex documents in Word is using Styles in your formatting, especially the built-in heading styles. In Word 2007 and later the features discussed in this chapter start with the References Tab on the Ribbon.

Choose to view image in your browser for full size.

Quick Navigation Using Document Map or Navigation Pane

When you use styles in your complex document Microsoft Word's Document Map feature lets you quickly move to different headings within a document. This is a real time-saver when working with long documents.

The Document Map is just like a road map. If you have used heading styles within your complex document you can maneuver your way through the document by clicking on the corresponding heading that you need to access for editing. By clicking the heading, you are transported to that destination in your document. So, if you had a document that was 42 pages long, and you needed to get to heading 6.2 on page 31, just click on the heading in the Document Map area and you quickly move to this location.

CK Warning - The Document Map has known bugs that can corrupt your document if you use it to reorganize. This was fixed with the Navigation Pane in Word 2010. The Outline View does not have the drawbacks of the Document Map and can be used in all versions of Word, at least since Word 97.

Practice: Navigate Using Document Map
  1. Create or open a long document formatted with heading styles.
  2. Click the Document Map button on the Standard toolbar, or from the View menu, choose Document Map.
  3. Click on a heading within the document map to move to that section in the document.
  4. Click on a different heading in the document map to move to another section within the document.

To turn off the document map feature, click the Document Map button on the Standard toolbar. The button works as a toggle.

CK Warning: Using the Document Map to move text in a document can lead to document corruption!

Practice: Navigate Using Document Navigation Pane (Word 2010 and later)
  1. Create or open a long document formatted with heading styles.
  2. View Tab and check the box for Navigation Pane.
  3. Click on a heading within the Navigation Pane to move to that section in the document.
  4. Click on a different heading in the document map to move to another section within the document.

To turn off the Document Pane, click X at the top right corner of the pane.

See also Outline View in Microsoft Word

Generating a Table of Contents
Note CK Note: This chapter gives step-by-step instructions on generating a Table of Contents. Here are what I consider the best two reference articles on generating a Table of Contents in Word.
bulletBasics: How to create a table of contents in Microsoft Word by Shauna Kelly
bulletMore Advanced Nuances: TOC Tips and Tricks by Suzanne Barnhill

Tables of Contents generated by Word are fields. Specifically, a TOC field. The simplest way to create such a field is to type the letters "TOC" and select them, then press Ctrl+F9 to make it a field. (It will look like { TOC }.) Then press F9 to update the field. That gives you a table of contents for outline levels 1-9. You can do much more. The following shows you how to mark text to go in the Table of Contents, how to generate that field so that it only handles certain levels and more.

 

When you use Word's built-in styles or your own custom styles within your long document, generating a table of contents can be as easy as 1-2-3. Word will do all the work for you by inserting your applied headings (at their different levels) into a quickly generated table of contents. You can also customize your indents, tab leaders, page numbers, and even other formatting for your table of contents easily in the creation process of your TOC.

You are not restricted to using just the heading styles method of creating a table of contents, you can mark your headings manually, or you can define what styles the table of contents includes by selecting any styles from within the document.

Practice: Generate a Table of Contents Using Applied Styles
  1. Create a new document and type the following text:
    Introduction
    Overview
    Unsolicited Proposals
    Solicited Proposals
    General
    The Proposal
  1. Click anywhere within the first line, Introduction.
  2. (Word 97-2003) Click the Style drop-down arrow and apply Heading 1. (Or, press Ctrl+Alt+1)

       Applying Heading 1 via the Style drop-down list
     (Word 2007-2016) Click the Heading 1 style in the QuickStyles. (Or, press Ctrl+Alt+1)
      

 
Note Note  In Word 97, finding your style in the Style drop-down list can be a bit confusing. The styles are not listed in alphabetical order. In Word 2000 the styles are listed alphabetically.

  1. Select Overview, and apply Heading 2. (Ctrl+Alt+2)
  2. Select Unsolicited Proposals, Solicited Proposals and General. Apply Heading 3. (Ctrl+Alt+3)
  3. Select The Proposal and apply Heading 2 style and after deselecting the text, press Enter twice.
  4. (Word 97-2003) From the Insert menu, choose References > Index and Tables. Select the Table of Contents tab.
    (Word 2007+) On the References Tab, Click on the Table of Contents Button and Select Custom Table of Contents

    Word 97 Table of Contents Tab:

    The Word 97 Index and Tables dialog, with the Table of Contents tab selected

    Word 2000-Word 2016 Table of Contents Tab:

As you see from the two previous figures, the only difference between Word 97 and Word 2000-2016's Table of Contents tabs is that Word 2000-2016 allows you to preview your table of contents, as it will look on the web, not with page numbers, but with your headings as hyperlinks.

 
Note Note  On the Table of Contents tab in the Index and Tables dialog box, Word provides you with the default format "From Template," and lists other options under the Formats box. By clicking on the other available formats within the format area notice how the preview of the table of contents change, as well as the available options below the Formats and Preview sections in the dialog box based on the format selected.

CK Note: Word 2007/2010/2013/2016/365 Insert TOC is through the References Tab. This is not the recommended method, though, for documents that will have a multiple-page TOC. Inserting at TOC using the button on the References tab inserts a special document part in addition to the TOC field and such a TOC can take longer to create or update than one using only the field.

In the Ribbon versions you can get to the dialog with TOC settings under the Table of Contents Button. You use the Insert Table of Contents (Word 2007-2010) or Custom Table of Contents (Word 2013-2016/365) selection near the bottom of the menu.
bulletIf you go to macros, word commands, InsertTableOfContentsMenu brings it up. If needed often, it can be attached to the QAT.
bulletYou can also get it by right-clicking on the Table of Contents and choosing Edit Field. In the Field dialog box click on the Table of Contents button. Make the changes you want. When you click on OK Word asks you if you want to replace the existing TOC. Choose "Yes" to save your changes. You can get to this without an existing TOC by using Insert > Field.

Recommended method for Word 2007-2016 is to directly insert the TOC field. Insert Tab > Quick Parts > Fields > TOC. Click on the Table of Contents button. It will bring up the dialog.

You can use the Tables of Contents from the Gallery, they will work, however, it will be slower in use even if quicker to insert. The Gallery choices also all include a Title like "Table of Contents" as a part of the Content Control.
 


  1. Accept the "From Template" default. Click OK and your table of contents is generated.

Table of Contents generated and inserted into a document

Practice: Generate a Table of Contents By Manually Marking Entries
  1. Create a new document and again type the following text:
    Introduction
    Overview
    Unsolicited Proposals
    Solicited Proposals
    General
    The Proposal
  1. Select the first line Introduction.
  2. Press Alt+Shift+O on the keyboard. This combination opens the Mark Table of Contents Entry dialog box. (Notice that your selected text is in the Entry field.)

The Mark Table of Contents Entry dialog

  1. The Table Identifier default is C if you do not have any other tables (Table of Figures, Table of Authorities, etc.) within your document. This is for multiple tables and allows for hierarchy among the tables.

The next field is the Level identifier for your selected text. You change this field to correspond to whatever heading levels you have selected.

  1. Click Mark, and your TOC entry has been marked for insertion to your table of contents. The Mark Table of Contents Entry dialog box will stay open so that you can click twice back into your document and select the next heading without closing the dialog box.
  2. Select the next heading, and then click twice back into the dialog box, and the newly selected heading will automatically be placed in the Entry field.
  3. Mark all of the headings in your document with the appropriate levels.
  4. Place the insertion point where you want the table of contents to be generated. From the Insert menu, choose Index and Tables. Select the Table of Contents tab.
  5. Click Options.

The Table of Contents options dialog

  1. Under the option for Build table of contents from, uncheck the Styles checkbox and check the option for Table entry fields. Click OK, and then OK again to close the dialog box and to generate your manually marked table of contents.

Note

CK Note: Manually inserting a Table of Contents Entry inserts a TC field in your document. For more on this field, see the Microsoft Support page on it. The display of TC fields, unlike most other Word fields, is controlled by the option to display hidden text. This can be quickly toggled using Ctrl+Shift+8 (Ctrl+*). Using the Alt+Shift+O shortcut to enter the TC field automatically turns this display of hidden text on.
Generating a Table of Contents Using Word 2007 and Later - The Gallery

The instructions above work. The method of manually marking text to go into the Table of Contents is the same in all versions. This section is about the Gallery entries that come with the Ribbon Versions of Word. There are three of them. If you do not have a Ribbon Version of Word, skip to Updating a Table of Contents.

Word 2007 and later move the Table of Contents controls to the References tab or the far right end of the tab. If you click on the Table of Contents button you get a drop down menu. By default that menu looks like this:

The first two entries "Automatic Table 1" and "Automatic Table 2" insert a TOC field inside of a Content Control under a Title. The only difference between the two is the Title: "Contents" or "Table of Contents." In the document, when selected, the Content Control looks like this:

The "Update Table" tab and the outline disappear when your selection is outside of the TOC. This is a Content Control. It is noticeably slower at updating or editing than is the simple field. Again, the only difference with "Automatic Table 2" is that it will read "Table of Contents" instead of "Contents." If you use the "Insert Table of Contents" (Word 2007/2010) or "Custom Table of Contents" (Word 2013 and later) commands instead of picking an entry, you will get just the field rather than the Content Control with title. I have provided a template on my downloads page that lets you add this to the gallery if you would prefer that to using the command.

The third entry "Manual Table" inserts Content Controls formatted using the TOC1-TOC3 styles instead of a field. You then type your own content and page numbers. It is not at all automatic other than the styles for formatting. Although the TOC Content Control says "Update Table" because it contains no fields, clicking on that will generate an error message. (It won't hurt anything, though.)

Each entry in this is a Content Control that will disappear once you type in it. The page numbers are entered manually, not generated from the pages that something is actually on.

 

Updating a Table of Contents

As with all complex documents, edits are constantly occurring. These edits will ultimately affect your initially generated table of contents. There are various ways to update the table of contents:

METHOD ACTION
Shortcut menu (Alternate-click) Click anywhere in the table of contents and select Update Field
F9 Click anywhere in the table of contents and press F9
Select Text+F9 Only updates selection. This works well when you have other fields in the document
Tools, Options, Print tab, Update Fields This allows the document to update all fields whenever you print the document
Word 2007+ References Tab Update TOC This updates the table of contents from anywhere in the document

When you decide to update your table of contents and use one of the options listed previously, the Update Table of Contents dialog box appears.

The Update Table of Contents dialog

You are asked whether you want to Update page numbers only, or if you would like to Update entire table. If you have manually changed any text in the table of contents and only want the page numbers to be updated, select that option. Otherwise (almost always), you want to update the entire table.

 
Warning Warning  If you have made manual changes and choose to update the entire table all of your changes will be lost.
If you have not made any manual changes to the entries, but have added or moved headings within the document, select the entire table option.

Note

CK Note: If your page numbers show up in Arabic (1, 2, 3, etc.) or Roman (I, II, III, etc.) in your Table of Contents when the page numbers on the pages are otherwise, it is probably because you formatted the numbers in your headers or footers using field formatting switches rather than using the Format Page Number commands.

Home ] Introduction ] Word 2002 ] Web Resources ] Word Books ] Confidentiality ] Supplement ] Word FAQ ] Vendors Dir. ] Downloads ]

Click to return to table of contents page of Legal Users' Guide to Microsoft Word.Click to go to Microsoft Word new users frequently asked questions site in a new browser window.
(this guide table of contents) ----- (MS Word New Users FAQ)

Search Usersguide to Microsoft Word using Google

 

Built-In Hyperlinks in the Table of Contents – Differences between Word 97 and Word 2000 and later – CK Note

By default, a Table of Contents generated in Word will contain hyperlinks to the sections listed in the Table of Contents. These hyperlinks are normally invisible (not formatted using the Hyperlink character style). Word 2000 makes the entire entry a hyperlink. In Word 97 only the page numbers are hyperlinks. If a document has a Table of Contents generated using Word 2000 and is read or edited in Word 97, the hyperlinks on the text in the Table of Contents will remain unless that Table of Contents is updated using Word 97. However, they will be formatted using the Hyperlink character style (blue and underlined by default) in Word 97.

If you right-click on the Table of Contents and “toggle” the field code, you will see how the field is constructed. One of the “switches” in the field is “\h.” If you delete this switch and update the field, the hyperlink property of the text will disappear in Word 2000. (The page numbers will continue to act as unformatted hyperlinks, though.).

Normally the Web and Word versions of this Users' Guide are very similar and interchangeable. However, in this chapter, I've added examples in the Word version that can't be accurately reflected here. Those examples are accompanied by text which also isn't shown here. The field code generated by default in Word 2000 is The field code for this is: { TOC \o "1-3" \h \z }. The Word version of this chapter demonstrates the Table of Contents and contains three different Tables of Contents with different field codes to show how these can be modified to change the heading levels and remove the hyperlink switch. See also Customizing Your Table of Contents with Switches by Suzanne Barnhill.

In Word 97-2000, the hyperlinks are shown in the Table of Contents with blue underlined text. In later versions of Word, the hyperlinks to content for the entire entry continue with the \h switch, but the hyperlink formatting of blue underlined text is suppressed. This leads to a further anomaly...

Built-In Hyperlinks and Direct Formatting and the Table of Contents Field - CK Note

With the default field code, the entries in a Table of Contents are hyperlinked to the content shown in the TOC. This is done with the \h switch in the TOC field. Without that switch, direct formatting applied to the entry (that is, not done through the paragraph style) will show up in the Table of Contents. However, with the \h switch you get no underlining from the original text and in Word versions up to 2007 no color. In Word 2010 and later, you may get some color reflected some times, but not necessarily the color from the original and not always. As far as I can tell you might get blue color in the TOC. Here is an example of a TOC and related text in Word 2010 with and without the \h switch.

I assume that this would also apply to Tables of Authorities and Tables of Figures (but have not verified that). See also this article on direct formatting and a Table of Contents.

Changing the Appearance of the Table of Contents - Beyond the Switches - CK Note

The formatting of the Table of Contents itself is determined by the Styles TOC 1, TOC 2, TOC 3, etc. You need to modify those styles to make changes in the appearance of your Table of Contents that you can't get from the choices offered by Word. If you just modify the format directly, your changes will be lost when the table is updated. See Troubleshooting an example on this.

Using Only Part of a Document for a Table of Contents - CK Note

Sometimes it is useful to have a Table of Contents for only part of a document (i.e., a chapter). This can be done by selecting that part and inserting a Bookmark for that part. Then, you modify the TOC field to include a "switch" that makes it active only for the bookmarked text.

If, after inserting the Table of Contents, you press Alt+F9 to toggle display of field codes you should see something like this:

{ TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u }

The codes above are for a default Table of Contents. If you want to have it only for that portion of your document that is in the bookmark "Chapter_4," you would modify the field to read:

{ TOC \b Chapter_4 \o "1-3" \h \z \u }

Then press Alt+F9 and F9 to update your Table of Contents. It should now reflect only those entries within that bookmark.

Putting Only Part of a Heading in a Table of Contents Automatically Using the Style Separator - CK Note

The Table of Contents field uses items marked with the TC field or with certain Outline levels like the Heading Styles. If you have a lengthy heading and only want part of it in the Table of Contents, this can be done (beginning I believe with Word 2002) using a Style Separator. The following screenshot shows a paragraph with two paragraph styles applied, separated by a Style Separator.

When a Style Separator is used, normally the Styles on either side appear to be the same. The color of one was changed here for demonstration purposes. See here for more on using the Style Separator and creating the continuation style.

Creating a Single Table of Contents for Multiple Documents Using RD Fields

It is possible to create a single Table of Contents for multiple documents. That Table of Contents should be a separate document containing RD fields. (Referenced Document)

The fields needed for that could be in the format:

{ RD "Chapter 1.docx" \f }
{
RD "Chapter 2.docx" \f }
{
TOC }

The above is for all of the documents in the same folder.

Note that the braces {} cannot simply be typed. You need to have Word insert a field.
Using Fields in Microsoft Word - a Tutorial in the Intermediate Users' Guide to Microsoft Word

 

Generating a Table of Authorities

Marking citations for a table of authorities is comparable to manually marking headings for a table of contents. Word looks for cases, statutes, rules, treatises, and constitutional provisions to generate a table of authorities. You can also mark any additional authority you need included.

CK Note: In Word 2007 and later the TOA controls start on the References Tab

Practice: Mark a Table of Authorities Entry
  1. Open a document that contains citations that you want to mark for a table of authorities and place your cursor at the beginning of the document.
  2. From the Insert menu, choose Index and Tables, and select the Table of Authorities tab.
  3. Click Mark Citation.
  4. The following dialog box will appear. Click Next Citation. Word searches the document for terms such as: in re, v., Id., Supra, Infra, Cong., Sess., and .

The Mark Citation dialog for marking a Table of Authorities citation

  1. After Word has found a citation in the document, click twice back in your document and select the full citation (e.g. Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478 (1964)). Click twice again, this time in the Mark Citation dialog box and the selection appears in the Selected Text field.
  2. Choose a category for your citation (i.e. Cases, Statutes, etc.), and then edit the text in the Short Citation field to match the short citations in the rest of the document. This may be Escobedo v. Illinois, or just Escobedo. If you use just the first party, Word will find the party whenever it is referenced, for example, as "in Escobedo, the parties…".

The Mark Citation dialog with a Case citation selected

  1. Now you can mark the citation by clicking Mark for just the long cite, or Mark All to find all of the references throughout the document.
  2. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to mark the rest of the citations in your document. When you are finished, click Close to close the dialog box.
  3. Leave this document open for the next exercise.

Note

CK Note: Inserting a Table of Authorities Entry inserts a TA field in your document. For more on this field, see the Microsoft Support page on it. The display of TA fields, unlike most other Word fields, is controlled by the option to display hidden text. This can be quickly toggled using Ctrl+Shift+8 (Ctrl+*).
Practice: Generate A Table of Authorities
  1. (Word 97-2003) Place the insertion point where you want the table of authorities to be generated. From the Insert menu, choose Index and Tables. Select the Table of Authorities tab.
    (Word 2007+) Click on the Table of Authorities button on the References Tab.

    Word 97 Table of Authorities Tab:

    The Word 97 Index and Tables dialog, with the Table of Authorities tab selected

    Word 2000-2016 Table of Authorities Tab:

    The Word 2000 Index and Tables dialog, with the Table of Authorities tab selected

    The only difference between Word 97 and later versions in the Table of Authorities tabs is that the categories are no longer in a drop-down box.

  2. Select a format for your table of authorities. Just as with the Table of Contents dialog box, as you change your selected format, the preview changes to reflect that format.
  3. Uncheck the Use passim option. If checked and a citation is referenced on more than 5 pages, Word will put the word "passim" in place of the page numbers. If unchecked, Word allows all referenced pages to be listed, no matter how many there are.
  4. Clear the Keep original formatting check box as well. This will insert the citations in the formatting of the table of authorities style. If the box is checked, all formatting of the citation will come from how it is listed in the document (e.g. underlined, italicized, etc.).
  5. In the Category field, use the drop-down arrow (Word 97) to select what category of citations you want in your table of authorities. For this exercise, select All. (Word 2000+ users can select All from the list of categories.)
  6. If you want your entries to have dot leaders in the table, you have a choice of three different leader styles from the drop-down list. Alternatively, if you do not want them, you can select (none).
  7. After you have made your choices with the options available, click OK and your table of authorities is generated.

Table of Authorities inserted in the document

Updating a Table of Authorities

If there have been edits to the document that has been marked for a table of authorities, and new cites have been added, you can repeat the steps for marking entries into the table of authorities that was in the exercise on marking entries. If new short citations have been made for a citation that had previously been marked, highlight the long citation, press ALT+SHIFT+I, and select Mark All.

CK Note: Word 2007-2016 Insert Table of Authorities is through the References Tab.

Changing the Appearance of the Table of Authorities - CK Note

A Table of Authorities is a Field in Word. It looks like: { TOA \h \c "1" }. (You cannot simply type a field like this; the braces must be inserted by Word itself!) The "switches" are inserted automatically by the choices you select when you Insert the Table of Authorities. You can manually edit or insert these switches if you wish.

The paragraph formatting of the Table of Authorities, itself, is determined by the Style Table of Authorities. You need to modify this style to make changes in the appearance of your Table of Contents that you can't get from the choices offered by Word. If you just modify the format directly, your changes will be lost when the table is updated.

Creating a Single Table of Authorities for Multiple Documents - CK Note

It is possible to create a single Table of Authorities for multiple documents. That TOA should be a separate document containing RD fields. (Referenced Document)

The fields needed for that could be in the format:

{ RD "Chapter 1.docx" \f }
{
RD "Chapter 2.docx" \f }
{
TOA }

The above is for all of the documents in the same folder.

Note that the braces {} cannot simply be typed. You need to have Word insert a field.
Using Fields in Microsoft Word - a Tutorial in the Intermediate Users' Guide to Microsoft Word

 

Inserting / Creating a Caption for a Table (Figure / Picture / Equation) - CK Note

You can label certain parts of documents using captions, which can be automatically numbered. You can tell Word to insert such captions automatically as you add a table / picture / figure / equation. The process is essentially the same to add captions for any of these document elements. Here we will look at captions for Tables.

Captions can appear above or below the marked object and can be sequentially numbered. To manually add a caption to an object like a table, you select the object and the use the References feature to add a Caption. In earlier versions of Word, this is done using the Insert > References command on the menu:

Insert Caption command (Word 2003)

In the Ribbon versions of Word a Caption is inserted using the Insert Caption command on the References Tab ribbon.

Insert Caption Command (Ribbon version - Word 2010)

Note that the "tooltip" explaining the command talks about images and tells you that the caption appears below an object, the same command is used for all captions and the caption can appear above or below the object. Either method brings up the Caption dialog box.

Caption Dialog box - you can type in text to label your caption

Word will suggest a label for your caption, in this case Table 1. You can modify this by typing additional text or change the label altogether using the "New Label" button. The numbering button can be used to change or format the numbering. The AutoCaption button can be used to tell Word to add a caption whenever you insert this type of object.

When you insert any kind of Caption, manually or automatically, what Word does is insert a SEQ Field with the Label chosen. This Caption uses the built-in Paragraph Style "Caption." It is that Style that controls the appearance of the Caption (font/size/color).

Table Caption with Field Code displayed in Caption Style - Word 2010

If you use the Insert Caption function in Word, these fields in the Caption Style can be used to create a Table of Figures or a Table of Tables or a Table of Equations, etc. Captions for a Table cannot be inside the table.

Chapter Numbering for Captions

You can use chapter numbering in captions. To do this, your chapters must start with a style set for numbering. See How to create numbered headings or outline numbering in Ribbon Versions of Word by Shauna Kelly for instructions on doing that. You click on the Numbering button in the Insert Caption dialog and tell Word which style has your numbering. You can choose the style which designates the beginning of your chapter in the Caption Numbering dialog. Numbering of captions will restart with each chapter.

 

Note that captions are text and fields; once inserted, they can be changed directly, but not by the Caption dialog. This means that you can simply delete a caption (including the paragraph mark) and use Insert Caption to insert another one. It also means that if you insert a caption for something that already has one, you will insert an additional caption and use a second number with the seq field. See screenshots below.

If you choose to include the Chapter number in your caption, numbering will restart with each chapter. While you can have the chapter number without restarting, you can't do that through the dialog box. You would need to modify the SEQ field to remove the \s switch at the end.

Here is a Table caption with field display toggled. It is as set by the dialog box with a chapter number included:

Here is the same caption after being modified to remove the restart switch at the end of the SEQ field:

Each caption will have to be changed if you do not want the restart. You can copy and paste to do this.

Create a Table of Figures - or Illustrations - or Tables - CK Note

You can insert a Table of Figures, or Illustrations, or Tables easily in Microsoft Word. There are two primary methods. The first uses the Captions that you inserted using Insert > Caption. The second uses a particular style, perhaps even the Caption style!

These tables are all variations on the Table of Contents field and can be adjusted using the other tabs on the dialog box for that field. In menu versions you start the same way, Insert > References... > Index and Tables...

Insert Table of Figures Menu Versions Microsoft Word Help

 In Ribbon versions of Word (Word 2007 and later), use the Table of Figures button on the References Tab.

References > Table of Figures (Tables) Microsoft Word Help

This gives you a dialog box similar to the ones below.

Table of Figures dialog menu versions of Microsoft Word - Help Table of Figures dialog in Ribbon versions of Microsoft Word - Help

These dialogs are essentially the same. The title of the dialog box is different. Note that each of them includes tabs at the top allowing creation of an Index, Table of Contents, or Table of Authorities in addition to the Table of Figures. The Caption labels shown above includes Illustration, which was a custom caption label added using the Caption dialog when an Illustration Caption was created. The default labels include: Equation, Figure, and Table.

Using a Style as the key to create a combined table

The default setup creates the table from the Caption and is specific to the label used for the Captions. It is also possible to use, instead, the Style used for the Caption paragraph. If your caption was created using the Caption feature in Word, that style will be the Caption paragraph style. To use a style as the key for your table, you click on the Options button of the dialog box.

Style identifier in Table of Figures in Microsoft Word - Help

 

To be continued - in the meantime - see Create a Table of Figures. Be sure to read the entire article (it is short) because there are multiple methods and this is a very flexible feature.

Note that the TC field can be used for this purpose as well. You would need to add an \f switch.

I only want part of a heading (or caption) to appear in my Table of Contents (Figures)

This can be done, since Word 2002, at least, using a Style Separator. The part of the logical heading paragraph (or caption) that you do not want in your Table of Contents must be formatted in a different paragraph Style.

 

 

Indices (Indexes)

After marking documents for table of contents and table of authorities, you are sure to be comfortable marking an entry for an index. It is done in the same manner as tables of contents and authorities. Access to the controls to create indices is different in the Ribbon versions of Word (Word 2007 and later) and the earlier versions of Word.

Index Ribbon Versions of Word (Word 2007 and later) (for menu versions, click here)

In Word 2007 and later the marking of entries and generation of the index starts with the References Tab in the Ribbon.

Practice: Mark an Index Entry
  1. Find and open a document that you want to index.
  2. Find the first instance of text for the index and select.
  3. From the References Tab, click Mark Entry. (Keyboard shortcut: Alt+Shift+X)


     
  4. Your selected text is automatically placed in the Main entry field. Here you can edit the text to change the way that it will look in the index, if needed.

At this point, you can add a Subentry for your main entry. You can also select options for your entry: Cross-reference refers the reader back to another entry in the index, Current page refers to the page number of the marked entry, and Page range refers to a range of pages referenced by a bookmark.
 

  1. Click Mark to mark the first entry, or Mark All to have Word find all instances of this entry.

The Mark Index Entry dialog

Warning
Warning  Word is case sensitive with index entries. If you use Mark All, your main entry text must match exactly what the document contains. If you select "Heading" as a main entry, Word will not pick up "heading," nor will it mark "Headings."

  1. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to mark all of the index entries.
  2. Keep this document open for the next exercise.

Note

Note: Manually inserting an Index Entry inserts a XE field in your document. For more on this field, see the Microsoft Support page on it. The display of XE fields, unlike other Word fields, is controlled by the option to display hidden text. This can be quickly toggled using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Shift+8 (Ctrl+*).
Practice: Insert an Index
  1. Place the insertion point where you want the index to be generated. On the References Tab, click on Insert Index.

    This brings up the Index dialog box:

  2. Select a Type for your index, whether you want it Indented or Run-in. The indented option places your subentries on separate lines; and the run-in option places subentries (separated by semicolons) on the same line.
  3. Click the arrows in the Columns spin box to change the number of columns for the index.
  4. Select Right align page numbers to change the alignment of the page numbers.
  5. Select a tab leader style in the Tab leader drop-down box, or use (none) if none is desired.
  6. Choose a format in the Formats box and take a look at it in the Preview pane. If it doesn't suit your needs, select a different format in this box.
  7. Click OK to insert the index. Word will add a continuous section break at the beginning and the end of the index. This allows you to have the index formatted with multiple columns.
Index Menu Versions of Word (Word 2003 and earlier) (for Ribbon versions click here)
Practice: Mark an Index Entry
  1. Find and open a document that you want to index.
  2. Find the first instance of text for the index and select.
  3. From the Insert menu, choose Index and Tables, and select the Index tab. Click Mark Entry. (Keyboard shortcut Alt+Shift+X)
  4. Your selected text is automatically placed in the Main entry field. Here you can edit the text to change the way that it will look in the index, if needed.

At this point, you can add a Subentry for your main entry. You can also select options for your entry: Cross-reference refers the reader back to another entry in the index, Current page refers to the page number of the marked entry, and Page range refers to a range of pages referenced by a bookmark.

  1. Click Mark to mark the first entry, or Mark All to have Word find all instances of this entry.

The Mark Index Entry dialog

Warning
Warning  Word is case sensitive with index entries. If you use Mark All, your main entry text must match exactly what the document contains. If you select "Heading" as a main entry, Word will not pick up "heading," nor will it mark "Headings."

  1. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to mark all of the index entries.
  2. Keep this document open for the next exercise.

Note

Note: Manually inserting an Index Entry inserts a XE field in your document. For more on this field, see the Microsoft Support page on it. The display of XE fields, unlike other Word fields, is controlled by the option to display hidden text. This can be quickly toggled using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Shift+8 (Ctrl+*).
Practice: Insert an Index
  1. Place the insertion point where you want the index to be generated. From the Insert menu, choose Index and Tables. Select the Index tab.

    This brings up the Index dialog box (Word 97 looks looks slightly different):

     

  2. Select a Type for your index, whether you want it Indented or Run-in. The indented option places your subentries on separate lines; and the run-in option places subentries (separated by semicolons) on the same line.
  3. Click the arrows in the Columns spin box to change the number of columns for the index.
  4. Select Right align page numbers to change the alignment of the page numbers.
  5. Select a tab leader style in the Tab leader drop-down box, or use (none) if none is desired.
  6. Choose a format in the Formats box and take a look at it in the Preview pane. If it doesn't suit your needs, select a different format in this box.
  7. Click OK to insert the index. Word will add a continuous section break at the beginning and the end of the index. This allows you to have the index formatted with multiple columns.

The Word 2000+ Index and Tables dialog, with the Index tab selected

 

Note

CK Note: When a Table of Contents is generated by Word, the Page numbers are hyperlinks to the text referred to in the Table of Contents. (The entire Table of Contents can be a hyperlink in Word 2000 and later.) People sometimes want to do this with an index, as well. It can be done, but doing so isn't necessarily easy.

If you have a real need for such a hyperlink-enabled index, I recommend your reading the three articles on fields written by Cindy Meister. You can find links to them here. The third article will show you how to create these links (automatically) and you can download the macros to do it.

Indices are not hyperlinks and Word provides no automatic method for doing this. You can use a third-party program to do this if you need hyperlinks, though: IndexLinker

AutoMark and a Concordance File - CK Note

It is possible to create a separate Word document listing the terms you want indexed and have Word use this file in your document to mark your index entries. You may have noted the AutoMark button on the Insert Entry dialog. Experienced indexers recommend that this method not be used.

"But the end result is that you have every term indexed at EVERY place it occurs. Most of the mentions of a term in a book are simply passing references: what the reader wants to see in the index is only one page number; the one that contains the main topic for the term. If you send them on a wild goose chase to 20 other places first, they will think most unkindly of you." John McGhie How Do I Create an Index in Word?

If you want to create a concordance or AutoMark file, you start with a new document. Add a two-column table. In the first column you put the terms that you want Word to index (remembering that the Index feature is case sensitive). In the second column you put the Index heading that you want to appear in the Index. See this page for more. I strongly recommend reading John McGhie's article, first, though.

Multiple Indices - CK Note

It is possible to have more than one index with different entries in a single document. An Index is created by the Index Field. That is based on XE fields. Both of those have a "switch" \f which allows the index with that switch to only show XE fields that also have the same identifier. I know of no way, other than editing the fields, to insert this identifier. Follow the hyperlinks in this paragraph for more on these fields. Here is a Microsoft Answers Forum thread on this.

For more on Fields see Using Fields in Microsoft Word.

A Single Index for Multiple Documents - CK Note

It is possible to create a single index for multiple documents. That index should be a separate document containing RD fields. (Referenced Document)

The fields needed for that could be in the format:

{ RD "Chapter 1.docx" \f }
{
RD "Chapter 2.docx" \f }
{
INDEX }

The above is for all of the documents in the same folder.

Note that the field braces {} cannot simply be typed. You need to have Word insert a field.
Using Fields in Microsoft Word - a Tutorial in the Intermediate Users' Guide to Microsoft Word

 

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and endnotes are inevitable parts of working with complex legal documents. With Word, footnotes (listed on the bottom of the page) and endnotes (listed at the end of a document or a section) can be created, edited, and deleted with a great amount of ease. You can have them automatically number throughout your document, or use custom marks (symbols) - whichever you prefer. Moreover, to view them for reference or for editing is extremely easy.

CK Note: In Word 2007 and later Footnotes and Endnotes start from the References Tab on the Ribbon.

 

Practice: Insert a Footnote
  1. Open a document in which you want to add footnotes.
  2. From the View menu, choose Normal (or press ALT+CTRL+N).
  3. Move your insertion point to the end of the sentence where you want to place the footnote reference mark.
  4. From the Insert menu, choose Footnote, and the Footnote and Endnote dialog box appears:

The Footnote and Endnote dialog from the Insert Footnote menu item

CK Note: In Word 2007 and later you start this process through the References Tab on the Ribbon.

  1. This is where you can choose to insert a Footnote or Endnote. You can also choose whether you want an AutoNumber (1,2,3) or a Custom mark (such as symbols). For the purposes of this exercise, insert a Footnote that is AutoNumbered.
  2. This will open a footnote pane at the bottom of your document window showing you the footnote. Type at the insertion point to enter the footnote. As you can see, your document window is also showing where you placed the footnote reference mark within the text.

The Footnote pane at the bottom of the document

  1. To close the footnote pane, click Close on the footnote pane bar.
  2. Keep this document open for the next exercise.
Viewing and Editing Footnotes and Endnotes

There are various methods to viewing footnotes and endnotes. The first way you have already seen in the preceding exercise by viewing within the footnote pane in Normal view. When you insert a footnote in Page Layout/Print Layout view, you get a different look footnotes. You can also choose View, Footnotes. This is the how you will see footnotes when you are in Page Layout (in Word 97)/Print Layout (in Word 2000+) view:

Editing footnotes in Print view

If you need to edit the footnote, you can just click within the footnote and start typing. Another way to view footnotes is by hovering your mouse arrow over the reference mark in the document. A Screen Tip will pop up and allow you to see the text in the footnote:

Viewing footnote text by hovering mouse over the footnote reference

You can also browse by footnotes or endnotes by using the Select Browse Object. This button allows you to browse by a number of different options:

Location of the Browse by Object button

When you click on the Browse by Object button, you get the following option box:

Browse by Object types, with footnote and endnote highlighted

After you have selected either browse by footnote or endnote, use the blue double arrows on the top and bottom of the Browse by Object button to move to the previous or the next footnote or endnote.

Editing a footnote or endnote is just as easy as entering text within the document itself. You just view the footnote or endnote, click and type.

 
Warning Warning  When deleting a footnote, you must delete the footnote reference mark within the document. If you delete the text and the number from the footnote pane or from the page in Page Layout/Print Layout view, it does not delete the number within the text itself. If you do this, and then add a new footnote to the document, your numbering will be off by one. Word still thinks the deleted footnote is still active. You can correct this by going to the original reference mark in the document and deleting it.

CK Warning Footnotes and Endnotes may not be included in the Word Count automatically generated by Word. See below.


Practice: Edit a Footnote
  1. From the View menu, choose Normal (or press ALT+CTRL+N).
  2. From the View menu, choose Footnotes to open the footnote pane.
  3. Click within the footnote pane, and edit. When you are finished with your changes, click Close.

You can also cut and paste a footnote or endnote from one place in your document to another just by highlighting the footnote reference mark within the document and choosing Edit, Cut (or by alternate-clicking and selecting Cut), move your insertion point to new site for the footnote and choose Edit, Paste. When you cut or copy a footnote or endnote reference mark, Word automatically takes the text of the footnote with the reference mark.

Converting Footnotes and Endnotes

If there is a change in plans and the footnotes need to become endnotes, or vice versa, Word will quickly convert your footnotes to endnotes with a click of the mouse.

Practice: Convert Footnotes to Endnotes
  1. Create a new document with one or two footnotes.
  2. From the Insert menu, choose Footnotes, and click Options.

The Note Options dialog for changing footnote and endnote options

  1. Select the All Endnotes tab and choose a Number format for your converted footnotes.
  2. Click Convert.

The Convert Notes dialog with Convert all footnotes to endnotes selected

  1. Click OK, then at the Options dialog box click OK. The last step is to close the Footnote and Endnote dialog by clicking Close. Your footnotes have now become endnotes.

If you want to reverse the procedure, just go through steps 2-4, and the following dialog box appears:

The Convert Notes dialog with Convert all endnotes to footnotes selected

Then repeat steps 5 and 6, and your endnotes have been converted back to footnotes.

 

Note

CK Note: See also: Why do my footnotes sometimes end up on a different page from their references in the text? by Suzanne S. Barnhill, MVP, and Dave Rado, MVP.

Also, you can reference a single footnote or endnote multiple times in text (and have the number update automatically) by using cross-references. Suzanne Barnhill pointed this out in one of the Microsoft Word newsgroups recently.

Insert > Reference > Cross-reference > Footnote > Number of Footnote (select the appropriate one). The number will update if the note number changes. Or...

Insert > Cross-Reference > Footnote > Number of Footnote

Remember that such cross-references need to be updated some how.

 

 

Inserting Bookmarks

We have all used bookmarks at one time or another. We've dog-eared pages and even used sticky notes to mark where we have left off in a book. Word does the same thing in long documents. If you have bookmarked a paragraph or heading in your document, the next time you open the document you can use Goto to move to your bookmarked location.

This is especially handy when you find that there are parts of your document that are constantly being updated. You can use bookmarks to jump in and out of those problem spots quickly.

Note CK Note: Bookmarks are also one of the best ways to have text inserted in one place reflected elsewhere in the document -- or even in another document! You do this by insertion of a cross-reference to the text of the bookmark. Cindy Meister refers to this as the second mode of bookmarks -- not just holding a place in a document but holding content in a document. Another good way in versions of Word 2007 and later is by use of Document Property Content Controls and Other Mapped Content Controls
Practice: Insert a Bookmark
  1. Select any text on the page.
  2. From the Insert menu, choose Bookmark (or press CTRL+SHIFT+F5).

The Bookmark dialog for inserting bookmarks

(In Word 2007 and later the control to insert a Bookmark is on the Insert Tab of the Ribbon. The Ctrl+Shift+F5 shortcut continues to work.)

  1. Create a name for your bookmark in the Bookmark name field (you cannot start a Bookmark name with a number, and Word won't allow spaces within the name).
  2. Click Add. (Notice that Word has added this new bookmark to the bookmark list.)
  3. Click Close.
Navigating With Bookmarks

Now that you have marked your document with bookmarks, let's go over the easy ways to move throughout your document using them.

Practice: Find your Bookmarks
  1. Press F5 on your keyboard. The Find and Replace dialog box appears, with the Go To tab activated. In the Go to what list, find Bookmark.
  2. One of your bookmarks will fill the Enter bookmark name field. If this is not the bookmark you are looking for, click the drop-down arrow and select the bookmark that you want to find. Click Go To, and Word will take you to the bookmarked location.

    The Find and Replace dialog with the Go To tab selected, to find a bookmark

  3. You can go to the next bookmark by pressing F5 again and selecting the new bookmark name and clicking Go To.
Warning CK Warning: Bookmarks are fragile creatures and easily deleted when you are editing bookmarked text! For instance, if you follow the directions above to go to a bookmark, you will have the bookmark (as well as the bookmarked text) selected. If you make changes without adjusting this, you will delete the bookmark and any references to that bookmark (see below) will be invalid. 

When you are working with bookmarked text, keep your view options set to view bookmarks and your Undo key handy! When I am working with bookmarked text and want to preserve the bookmark, I will put my insertion point (cursor) inside of the bookmarked text - just after the first letter of that text. I will then insert the changes that I want to make and delete the surplus text by hand using the delete or backspace keys. 

This fragility exists in all versions of Word to date (2013).

For more on bookmarks see: Word Bookmarks by Cindy Meister

 

Working with Cross-references

To refer the reader to another part of the document, you can insert a cross-reference.

Note CK Note: Cross-reference fields can refer to bookmarked text. Further, instead of simply providing a link or a page number for referenced text, cross-reference fields can reproduce that text. This one of Word's ways of repeating variable text in a document. In Word 2007 and later another great way is with Document Property Content Controls and Other Mapped Content Controls.
Practice: Insert a Cross-reference
  1. Create a new document and type the following:
    Introduction
    Overview
    Unsolicited Proposals
    Solicited Proposals
    General
    The Proposal
  1. Click anywhere within the first line, Introduction.
  2. Click the Style drop-down arrow and apply Heading 1 (or use Ctrl+Alt+1 shortcut).
  3. Select Overview, and apply Heading 2 (or use Ctrl+Alt+2 shortcut).
  4. Select Unsolicited Proposals, Solicited Proposals and General. Apply Heading 3 (or use Ctrl+Alt+3 shortcut).
  5. Select The Proposal and apply Heading 2 style, and after deselecting the text press Enter twice.
  6. Your cursor is where the cross-reference is to be inserted.
  7. Type something to the effect of, "For more information, see".
  8. From the Insert menu (tab), choose Cross-reference.

The Cross Reference dialog

  1. In the Reference type drop-down list, select what reference type is appropriate for your cross-reference, for this example use Heading as the reference type. You can also use a numbered item, bookmark, footnotes, endnotes, equations, figures or tables.

The Cross Reference dialog with a Heading selected

In the Cross-reference dialog box, you also have a choice of how you want the reference to look. You could reference the heading text as shown above, or Page #, Heading #, Heading # (no context), Heading # (full context), and above/below.

  1. Select Unsolicited Proposals and click Insert. The dialog box remains open for any other cross-references that you may want to add. If you do not want to add more cross-references, just click Cancel.
  2. As you can see, your cross-reference has been marked. If you click "Unsolicited Proposals," Word takes you to the heading.

Jumping to a cross reference in a document

Updating Cross-references

If you have changed your text that is a cross-referenced passage in your document and the cross-reference has not updated, you need to update the field. You can alternate-click on the field code and select Update Field, or select the field code and press F9. This updates the field to reflect recent changes.

Note CK Note: If the material in a cross-reference displays a field in the original text, you may want to include the following "switch" in your cross-reference field code: \!  This is the "lock result" switch and prevents a field like { DATE } in your original bookmarked text from updating in your cross-reference when you update the cross-reference field, unless it has been updated at the source. (Complex, I know, but you usually will want to use this switch.)

Further, you can use a macro to update all Cross-Reference fields at once. The following macro will update all cross-reference documents in the main body of a document.

Sub UpdateAllRef()
' Based on code at http://www.gmayor.com/installing_macro.htm
' Update all Ref fields in a document, even if in headers/footers
Dim oStory As Range
Dim oField As Field
	'
For Each oStory In ActiveDocument.StoryRanges
For Each oField In oStory.Fields
If oField.Type = wdFieldRef Then oField.Update
Next oField
	'
If oStory.StoryType <> wdMainTextStory Then
While Not (oStory.NextStoryRange Is Nothing)
Set oStory = oStory.NextStoryRange
For Each oField In oStory.Fields
If oField.Type = wdFieldRef Then oField.Update
Next oField
Wend
End If
	'
Next oStory
	'
Set oStory = Nothing
Set oField = Nothing
End Sub

For instructions on how to use this macro, see Graham Mayor's Installing Macros page.

Although Cross-Reference fields are hyperlinks, they do not look like hyperlinks. You can change this. See Formatting Cross-References by Suzanne Barnhill, MVP.

Word's built-in heading styles are designed to use with cross-references in ways other styles are not. See Why use Word's built-in heading styles? by Shauna Kelly.

 

 

Troubleshooting Complex Documents

I see "Error, Bookmark not defined" instead of my page numbers in my table of contents.

You need to update your table of contents by clicking within the table and pressing F9 on your keyboard, and then selecting Update entire table.

CK Note: In Word 2000 you'll probably have to move into the TOC using the arrow keys rather than by clicking in the TOC because of the default hyperlinks built into a Word 2000 TOC.

Why do I see { TOC \o "1-3" } instead of my table of contents? (Or alternately, { TOA \h \c 1 \p \f } instead of a table of authorities.)

What you are seeing is the field code that Word uses to complete the resulting table of contents or table of authorities. If you press ALT+F9, you will toggle the field code back to the result of the code seeing the expected table.

CK Note: If this doesn't work, the field codes were probably "toggled" rather than displayed. Press Alt+F9 again and then if needed Shift+F9.

I deleted a footnote, but now my footnotes seem to be off by one.

When you delete a footnote, you must delete the reference mark from within the document text. If you do not, even though the text and the reference mark are gone from the footnote pane, Word will not delete the footnote reference mark from the document. Highlight the reference mark for the unwanted footnote, and delete it. Your references should now be numbered correctly.

I tried to edit my footnote by deleting a paragraph mark and "Not a valid action for footnotes” appeared.

You can format this paragraph mark, but it cannot be deleted.

I pasted a selection that contained a bookmark into a new document, I tried using GoTo to find it, but it wasn't listed in my bookmarks.

Make sure the selection contains a space before the bookmark. Then when you paste the selection into the new document, the bookmark will be there.

I have material in one or more textboxes and it does not show up in my Table of Contents, Index, Document Map, Navigation Pane...

Before Word 2007, no headings in Textboxes would be picked up in a Table of Contents, this is still true of XE entries (Index). These do not appear in the Document Map or Navigation Pane. You may want to use a Frame instead.

I edited a heading I had already cross-referenced, and I went to update the cross-reference it didn't update.

You probably deleted the bookmark brace ([ or ]) that contained the reference. When editing a heading that has been marked for cross-reference remember that the heading has been marked as a bookmark. This is how Word knows where to find the reference in the document.

When editing a cross-referenced heading try this method: Click before the last word in the heading, type in the new/additional text along with the last word, and delete the next instance of that word. That way you will not delete the bookmark brace. You can now update the cross-reference.


Word Count

Warning


CK WARNING: 
In all versions of Word (at least through Word 2000) the Word Count shown in the document statistics in the document's properties will exclude text in footnotes or endnotes. This smaller number is also the figure generated by the {NumWords} field.

This can cause problems with meeting court rules.

Document Statistics in properties show inaccurate word count

Document Statistics erroneously shows the total word count for this document as 5,431 because endnotes and footnotes are excluded from the count. If you have a certificate page showing the word count, it probably uses a {NumWords} field that gives the same (erroneous) number.

Therefore, if text in footnotes and endnotes is supposed to be included in your word count it is vital to use Tools => Word Count to get an accurate word count for the entire document by checking the option for counting text in footnotes and endnotes.

Word Count Dialog Box - Check the box for including footnotes and endnotes in the count

This method shows a count of 6,819 words for the same document.

Selected Text Counts. Also, in Word 97 (2000) the word count can not include text in footnotes or endnotes referenced by selected text. The checkbox to include footnote and endnote text is not enabled.

Word Count for Selected Text using Word Count from Tools Menu - unable to include footnote and endnote text

The word count excluding footnotes and endnotes is 194 words. For selected text counts, see KB Article Q239423. There is a macro work-around to get a count on selected text that includes footnotes and endnotes available in KB Article Q241316. That macro will give you the following display:

Word Count Macro shows 834 words where Word Count command from Tools menu only counted the 194 in the body of the document. Click on this picture to go to page for macro download.

Using the macro solution, the count for the same selection of text is 834 words, 194 in the body and 640 in footnotes.

 

 
Warning

CK Warning Master Documents Feature All versions of Word since at least Word 95 have contained a heavily marketed "feature" called Master Documents. At least through Word 2010 casually using this feature will corrupt your documents (including documents you aren't even using at the time) and eventually leave you with confetti where your great American novel or thesis used to be. See Master Documents Feature in Microsoft Word for more on this and workarounds (as well as a link to the rigorous procedure necessary to attempt using this "feature").

Word will handle very large documents if they are properly prepared. Proper preparation includes extensive use of styles and proper use of bullets and numbering linked to styles. If you need to split your document into multiple files, see the workarounds on the Master Documents page but don't even think about using Master Documents unless you are willing and able to follow the rigorous procedure outlined by Steve Hudson.


Table of Contents/Authorities inside Word Table

I want to insert a Table of Contents (Authorities) inside the first column of a Word Table. I want my TOC in the first column and have other text in the right column. The page numbers disappear!

This is because the Styles for the entries are set for a full page. You need to modify the Styles.

The screenshot below shows the problem and its source in the paragraph formatting of the Table of Contents style used.

What is needed is changes to both the right-tab position and the right indent for the style. Click on modify the style for directions on modifying your styles.

Again, click on modify the style for directions on modifying your styles.

Some of my Table of Contents Lines Contain Different Formatting

The formatting of the Table of Contents is set by TOC styles. The Table of Contents disregards the formatting set using the Style of the source text. It does pay attention, though, to direct formatting (not applied by using the paragraph style). So, if your TOC picks up various headings (the norm) and one of the headings has direct formatting (not applied through the Heading paragraph Style) the Table of Contents line with that heading will pick up and use that direct formatting. For instance, if you make a Heading or part of a Heading Red, the line in the table of contents will have the same red coloring.

If, instead, you have a separate Style variation for that Heading (i.e. "Heading 3 Red") the Table of Contents will not pick up the formatting.

A variation on this appears if you have one of your Heading Styles set to be ALL CAPS. With such formatting, the case you use when you type the heading does not change the appearance of the heading. That is: "ThIS seLECTIon WILL appear" looks like: "THIS SELECTION WILL APPEAR" in your heading but will appear with the case actually typed in the Table of Contents. Fixing this requires changing the actual case of the text in the heading, not just the displayed case.

 

More Trouble-shooting Complex Documents

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